Youth unemployment the Italian context

The recorded unemployment rate in 2018 is 10,6% (male 9,7%; female 11,8%), mainly in the South (18,4%), then in the Centre (9,4%) and finally in Northern Italy (6,6%). Youngster population shows a highly relevant disadvantage, in fact the unemployment rate for the layer 15-24 y. o. reaches 32,2% (30,4% male and 34,8% female), with a peak of 48,4% in the South; in the Centre the rate is 29% and in Northern Italy 22%. Regarding the layer 25-34 y. o. the unemployment rate is more limited 15,9% (14,5% male; 17,8% female). In the South, the value is higher (27,8%), in the Centre 12,2% and in the North 9%.

This analysis shows the need to read even deeper the data. We have 2 layers so called I-Generation (15-24 y. o.) and Millenials (25-34 y. o.) where it is important to compare 2 indicators: the unemployment rate and the incidence of unemployment. The unemployment rate represents the relation between the group of unemployed people with the group of those unemployed and employed. The incidence of unemployment represents the rate between unemployed people and the whole target population (inactive population included).

Therefore, the unemployment rate considers those who would like to work and underlines how many of them manage to find a job. The incidence rate expresses the percentage of unemployed out of the whole young population (included those not interested in finding a job). One element to pay attention is the following: within the group of the very young people there are students which are historically considered inactive. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the youth unemployment rate with other category of ages.

On the basis of the above consideration the issue of unemployment of I-Generation goes from 32,2% of unemployment rate to 8,4% of incidence rate on the population. The Millennials on the contrary face a worst situation from 15,9% of unemployment rate to 11,7% incidence rate on population.

In all the geographic areas of Italy regarding the Millennials we have situations of demotivation and inactivism.